Instructions for Authors
Manuscripts should be prepared according to the following instructions and sent in electronic form by either email or on a physical data medium to
Ernst Zadrobilek, MD,
Editor-in-Chief. Authors must complete and sign a Covering Letter for the Electronically Submitted
Manuscript. The covering letter must accompany the submission and should be sent by mail or telefax to the editor-in-chief. Manuscript and covering letter receipt will be acknowledged by email.
All submitted manuscripts conforming to these requirements will be considered. They will be reviewed by at least two members of the editorial board and an external expert selected by the editor-in-chief; authors are welcome to suggest the names of potential reviewers. Acceptance will be based on validity, significance, and originality of the material presented.
Manuscripts of significant importance will be considered for an expedited review process. Authors will be advised by email usually within four weeks of receipt regarding the decision reached. Delays are sometimes unavoidable; authors will be contacted by email when these occur. For inquiries about the status of acknowledged manuscripts, authors should contact the editor-in-chief only by
The manuscripts should normally consist of the following sections in order:
Title Page. All submitted manuscripts (including correspondence) require a title page. This page should contain:
title of the manuscript (concise and informative);
the first name, middle initial, and last name of each author, with their highest academic degree(s) and institutional affiliations (and current positions);
name and email address of the author responsible for correspondence concerning the submitted manuscript; and
the name of the department(s) and institution(s) to which the work should be attributed.
Statements. Disclose all sources of financial support for the work
(including departmental and institutional funding), any possible commercial associations that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the work (such as consultancies, equity interests, patent holding and/or licensing arrangements), and the meetings at which the work has been presented (name, date, and
Acknowledgements. List all individuals and organizations to be acknowledged for assisting the work (including statistical
Keywords. Provide short phrases that will assist indexing the article.
Abstract. Abstracts are required for all manuscripts (except editorial views,
special articles, correspondence, reports of meetings, book and multimedia reviews, and web site reviews). The abstract should state the purposes of the study or investigation, basic procedures (selection of study subjects and observational methods), main findings (giving specific data and their statistical significance, if possible), and the principle conclusions. It should emphasize new and important aspects of the study or
Abstracts of clinical investigations must have the following headings:
Objective, Design, Setting, Patients, Interventions, Measurements and Main
Results, and Conclusions. Review
articles should use these headings in the abstract:
Objective, Data Sources, Study Selection, Data Extraction, Data Synthesis,
Introduction. State the purpose of the article and summarize the rationale for the study or observation. Give only strictly pertinent references and do not review the subject extensively.
Materials and Methods. Describe the selection of observational subjects clearly. Identify the methods, equipment (name and address of manufacturers in parentheses), and procedures in sufficient detail to allow other workers to reproduce the results. Give references to established methods, including statistical methods; provide references and brief descriptions for methods that have been published but are not well known; describe new or substantially modified methods, give reasons for using them, and evaluate their limitations. Identify precisely all drugs and chemicals used, including generic names(s), dosage(s), and route(s) of
Reports of randomized clinical trials should present information on all major study elements, including the protocol (study population, interventions or exposures, outcomes, and the rationale for statistical analysis), assignment of interventions (methods of randomization, concealment of allocation to treatment groups), and the method of masking
Authors submitting manuscripts concerning review articles should include sections describing the methods used for locating, selecting, extracting, and synthesizing data as structured in the
Legal and Ethical Considerations. When reporting experiments on human subjects, statements concerning Institutional Review Board approval and consent procedures must appear at the beginning of the section
Statistics. Describe the specific tests used to examine each part of the results. The detailed statistical methodology must be reported at the end of the section
Review of any study containing quantitative data and statistical inference by a consultant with formal statistical training and experience is recommended and should be acknowledged.
Results. Present the results in logical sequence in the text, tables, and illustrations. Do not repeat in the text all the data in the tables and/or illustrations; emphasize or summarize only important observations. When data are summarized, specify the statistical method used to analyze them.
Report losses to observations (such as dropouts from a clinical trial) and complications of treatment.
Discussion. Emphasize the new and important aspects of the study and the conclusions that follow from them. Do not repeat in detail data or other material given in the sections
Introduction and/or Results. Include in this section the implications of the findings and their limitations, including implications for future research. Relate the observations to other relevant
Link the conclusions with goals of the study but avoid unqualified statements and conclusions not completely supported by the data. In particular, authors should avoid making statements on economic benefits and costs unless their manuscript includes economic data and analyses. Avoid claiming priority and alluding to work that has not been completed. State new hypotheses when warranted, but clearly label them as such. Recommendations, when appropriate, may be included.
References. Number references in the sequence they appear in the text. There are no strict limits to the number of references, but do not include articles published without peer review. Abstracts and manuscripts submitted or accepted for publication should not be cited as references. Editorial views and correspondence used as references should be identified as such after the title in parentheses. Identify references in text, tables, and legends by arabic numerals (in parentheses, on the line).
Use the National Library of Medicine
style for formatting the references. Provide links from cited journal articles to the corresponding abstracts available from
and links to the full text of cited internet journal articles.
The following types of unsolicited articles are published in this
Clinical Investigations present results of original, important, and relevant clinical research (randomized controlled trials, intervention studies, outcome studies, and cost-effectiveness
Clinical Reports describe clinical investigations that do not require the breadth of experimentation or support required by a clinical investigative article.
Case Reports should be educational. They may describe a single case or a small series of cases. Case reports that draw attention to important and/or unusual clinical situations or a new treatment (or complication) are most
Review Articles collate,
describe, and evaluate previously published material to aid in evaluating new concepts or updating former
Special Articles are educational
contributions of matters of topical interest in clinical practice.
Questionnaires evaluate airway management in anesthesia,
critical care, and emergency medicine.
educational contributions on the history of outstanding innovations
in airway management.
Correspondence should include constructive comments concerning recently published articles or brief notations of general interest.
Communication of New Equipment and Techniques communicate innovative equipment and
This journal also publishes solicited
Scientific Meetings summarize the presentations of scientific and educational meetings.
Book and Multimedia Reviews report current literature. Please send all books and multimedia for review in duplicate to the editor-in-chief.
Web Site Reviews report web sites of special interest. Please inform the editor-in-chief on relevant web sites.